How to diagnose cloud performance issues

Is your public cloud-based workload too slow? You don’t know where to look first?  Here are some quick guidelines for diagnosing the root cause of most performance issues.

I’ve found that many people in IT who can quickly diagnose issues with traditional systems have trouble diagnosing cloud-based system. Why? Because they don’t have a deep understanding of what’s in a public cloud, such as Amazon Web Services or Microsoft Azure, and believe that it’s a black box.

That’s really not the case. Plus, the system management tools and APIs that most public clouds provide are first-rate. However, you do have to understand where to look first, and what tools to use.

Cloud performance is complex, because it’s a complex distributed system at the end of the day. However, follow the five diagnoses steps below to find and fix root causes. If you find performance issues at one step, don’t stop there! You may have more than one issue affecting performance.

1. Check the infrastructure that supports the workloads, both application and data

Using system monitoring and log analysis tools, you can determine CPU and storage utilization, which are the most likely culprits.

Many IT pros using clouds fail to allocate more CPUs and storage as needed as an application’s and database’s size expand over time. Although you would assume that a public cloud automatically expands to meet your needs, that’s not the case. You need to configure and provision more servers to handle to additional workload before they are needed.  

2. Look at the applications themselves

There are many monitoring tools that can peer into applications, and I strongly recommend that you use one or more of them.

Applications are the culprit for poor performance almost as often as the infrastructure is because they may not have been refactored or modified to used cloud-native features. Thus, they can become very inefficient at using the infrastructure, which falsely puts the performance blame on the infrastructure.

3. Look at other less likely root causes of performance issues

Now it’s time to check other components. Check the security system: Encryption services can saturate storage and compute. Check the governance services—even the monitoring services that will tell you about performance issues in the first place. I’ve found that all such tools can oversaturate the infrastructure.

4. Move to the network, including bandwidth checks inside and outside the cloud

Because you consume public cloud services over the open internet, you’re often competing with lots of other packets. To see if that’s a cause of your poor performance, do ping tests, as well as data movement up and down, using tests that approximate what’s transmitted and consumed by the cloud-based workloads.

5. Examine the users’ browsers and computers

Finally, there are often issues with the users’ browsers that interact with the cloud-based application.

I’ve found malware, encryption issues, and basically all of the stuff that can go wrong with Windows PCs and Macs can make the cloud performance become slow at the client side. Have tech support run those down if the first four steps come up clean.

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Evaluation of Human Resources for Health in the Republic of Rwanda under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)

Funding Opportunity ID: 297991
Opportunity Number: CDC-RFA-GH18-1850
Opportunity Title: Evaluation of Human Resources for Health in the Republic of Rwanda under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
Opportunity Category: Discretionary
Opportunity Category Explanation:
Funding Instrument Type: Grant
Category of Funding Activity: Health
Category Explanation:
CFDA Number(s): 93.067
Eligible Applicants: Others (see text field entitled “Additional Information on Eligibility” for clarification)
Additional Information on Eligibility: Eligible applicants that can apply for this NOFO are:Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Agency Code: HHS-CDC-CGH
Agency Name: Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control – CGH
Posted Date: Oct 16, 2017
Close Date: Dec 18, 2017 Electronically submitted applications must be submitted no later than 11:59 p.m., ET, on the listed application due date.
Last Updated Date: Oct 16, 2017
Award Ceiling: $3,000,000
Award Floor: $0
Estimated Total Program Funding: $0
Expected Number of Awards: 1
Description: This Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) will be to support the design, implementation, and dissemination of a program evaluation to document PEPFAR’s investments in human resources for health (HRH) in Rwanda since 2009. The outcome of this evaluation will be to increase knowledge of HRH contributions to PEPFAR Rwanda’s HIV prevention, care and treatment programs, and understand the impact of these investments on health outcomes in these programs. The aim of this evaluation is the inform policy, strategy, and systems to optimize efficiencies in HIV service delivery, achieve national HIV treatment and prevention goals, and improve national program quality and sustainability.
Version: 3
Modification Comments: Updated time of application due date

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Native American Affairs: Technical Assistance to Tribes for Fiscal Year 2018

Funding Opportunity ID: 297999
Opportunity Number: BOR-DO-18-F001
Opportunity Title: Native American Affairs: Technical Assistance to Tribes for Fiscal Year 2018
Opportunity Category: Discretionary
Opportunity Category Explanation:
Funding Instrument Type: Grant
Category of Funding Activity: Natural Resources
Category Explanation:
CFDA Number(s): 15.519
Eligible Applicants: Native American tribal governments (Federally recognized)
Native American tribal organizations (other than Federally recognized tribal governments)
Additional Information on Eligibility: Must be a federally recognized Indian tribe or tribal organization in the 17 Western States identified in the Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902.
Agency Code: DOI-BOR
Agency Name: Department of the Interior
Bureau of Reclamation
Posted Date: Oct 16, 2017
Close Date: Jan 17, 2018
Last Updated Date: Oct 16, 2017
Award Ceiling: $200,000
Award Floor: $0
Estimated Total Program Funding:
Expected Number of Awards: 10
Description: Native American Affairs: Technical Assistance to Tribes for Fiscal Year 2018.
Version: 2
Modification Comments: Updated Additional Information on Eligibility.

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Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs PHTBI Applied Behavior Analysis Clinical Study Award

Funding Opportunity ID: 297992
Opportunity Number: W81XWH-17-PHTBI-ABACSA
Opportunity Title: Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs PHTBI Applied Behavior Analysis Clinical Study Award
Opportunity Category: Discretionary
Opportunity Category Explanation:
Funding Instrument Type: Cooperative Agreement
Grant
Category of Funding Activity: Science and Technology and other Research and Development
Category Explanation:
CFDA Number(s): 12.420
Eligible Applicants: Unrestricted (i.e., open to any type of entity above), subject to any clarification in text field entitled “Additional Information on Eligibility”
Additional Information on Eligibility:
Agency Code: DOD-AMRAA
Agency Name: Department of Defense
Dept. of the Army — USAMRAA
Posted Date: Oct 16, 2017
Close Date: Dec 14, 2017
Last Updated Date: Oct 16, 2017
Award Ceiling: $0
Award Floor: $0
Estimated Total Program Funding: $7,000,000
Expected Number of Awards: 1
Description: Applications to the Fiscal Year 2017 (FY17) Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Research Program (PH/TBIRP) in the area of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism are being solicited for the Defense Health Agency (DHA) J9, Research and Development Directorate, by the U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (USAMRAA) using delegated authority provided by United States Code, Title 10, Section 2358 (10 USC 2358). As directed by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs (OASD[HA]), the DHA manages the Defense Health Program (DHP) Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) appropriation. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) provides PH/TBIRP execution management support aligned with specific DHP research program areas. The execution management agent for this Program Announcement is the CDMRP, with strategic oversight from the DHA. The PH/TBIRP was established by Congress in FY07 in response to the devastating impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychological health (PH) issues, including post-traumatic stress disorder, on our deployed Service members in Iraq and Afghanistan. The PH/TBIRP mission is to establish, fund, and integrate both individual and multi-agency research efforts that will lead to improved prevention, detection, and treatment of PH issues and TBI. The vision of the PH/TBIRP is to prevent, mitigate, and treat the effects of traumatic stress and TBI on function, wellness, and overall quality of life for Service members as well as their caregivers and families. The DHA leverages PH/TBIRP funding to complement DHP core research and development funding assigned to study PH and TBI.
Version: 1

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ROSES 2017: Magnetospheric Multiscale Guest Investigators

Funding Opportunity ID: 297993
Opportunity Number: NNH17ZDA001N-MMSGI
Opportunity Title: ROSES 2017: Magnetospheric Multiscale Guest Investigators
Opportunity Category: Discretionary
Opportunity Category Explanation:
Funding Instrument Type: Cooperative Agreement
Grant
Category of Funding Activity: Science and Technology and other Research and Development
Category Explanation:
CFDA Number(s): 43.001
Eligible Applicants: Others (see text field entitled “Additional Information on Eligibility” for clarification)
Additional Information on Eligibility: Proposers must be affiliated with an institution at nspires.nasaprs.com/ and, in general, NASA provides funding only to US institutions. Organizations outside the U.S. that propose on the basis of a policy of no-exchange-of-funds; consult Appendix B Section (l) of the Guidebook for Proposers (http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/procurement/nraguidebook/) for specific details. Some NRAs may be issued jointly with a non-U.S. organization, e.g., those concerning guest observing programs for jointly sponsored space science programs, that will contain additional special guidelines for non-U.S. participants. Also ref. Sections 2.3.10(c)(vii) of the Guidebook for Proposers for special instructions for proposals from non-U.S. organizations that involve U.S. personnel for whom NASA support is requested.
Agency Code: NASA-HQ
Agency Name: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA Headquarters
Posted Date: Oct 16, 2017
Close Date: Nov 09, 2017
Last Updated Date: Oct 16, 2017
Award Ceiling: $0
Award Floor: $0
Estimated Total Program Funding:
Expected Number of Awards:
Description: This ROSES NRA (NNH17ZDA001N) solicits basic and applied research in support of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The NRA covers all aspects of basic and applied supporting research and technology in space and Earth sciences, including, but not limited to: theory, modeling, and analysis of SMD science data; aircraft, scientific balloon, sounding rocket, International Space Station, CubeSat and suborbital reusable launch vehicle investigations; development of experiment techniques suitable for future SMD space missions; development of concepts for future SMD space missions; development of advanced technologies relevant to SMD missions; development of techniques for and the laboratory analysis of both extraterrestrial samples returned by spacecraft, as well as terrestrial samples that support or otherwise help verify observations from SMD Earth system science missions; determination of atomic and composition parameters needed to analyze space data, as well as returned samples from the Earth or space; Earth surface observations and field campaigns that support SMD science missions; development of integrated Earth system models; development of systems for applying Earth science research data to societal needs; and development of applied information systems applicable to SMD objectives and data. Awards range from under $100K per year for focused, limited efforts (e.g., data analysis) to more than $1M per year for extensive activities (e.g., development of science experiment hardware). The funds available for awards in each program element offered in ROSES-2017 range from less than one to several million dollars, which allows for selection from a few to as many as several dozen proposals, depending upon the program objectives and the submission of proposals of merit. Awards will be made as grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and inter- or intraagency transfers, depending on the nature of the proposed work and/or program requirements. The typical period of performance for an award is four years, although a few programs may specify shorter or longer (maximum of five years) periods. Organizations of every type, domestic and foreign, Government and private, for profit and not-for-profit, may submit proposals without restriction on the number or teaming arrangements. Note that it is NASA policy that all investigations involving non-U.S. organizations will be conducted on the basis of no exchange of funds. Electronic submission of proposals is required by the respective due dates for each program element and must be submitted by an authorized official of the proposing organization. Electronic proposals may be submitted via the NASA proposal data system NSPIRES or via Grants.gov. Every organization that intends to submit a proposal in response to ROSES-2017 must be registered with NSPIRES; organizations that intend to submit proposals via Grants.gov must be registered with Grants.gov, in addition to being registered with NSPIRES. Such registration must identify the authorized organizational representative(s) (AOR) who will submit the electronic proposal. All Principal Investigators (PIs) and other participants e.g., Co-Investigators (Co-Is) must be registered in NSPIRES regardless of the submission system. Potential proposers and proposing organizations are urged to access the system(s) well in advance of the proposal due date(s) of interest to familiarize themselves with its structure and to enter the requested information. Details of the solicited programs will be in the Appendices of ROSES-2017. Names, due dates, and links for the individual calls will appear in Tables 2 and 3 of this ROSES-2017 NRA. Interested proposers should monitor http://nspires.nasaprs.com/ or subscribe to the electronic notification system there for additional new programs or amendments to ROSES-2017 through February 2018, at which time release of a subsequent ROSES NRA is planned. A web archive (and RSS feed) for amendments, clarifications, and corrections to ROSES-2017 will be available at: http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/grant-solicitations/roses-2017/ Frequently asked questions about ROSES-2017 will be posted at http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/faqs/. Further information about specific program elements may be obtained, after the release of ROSES-2017, from the individual Program Officers listed in the Summary of Key Information for each program element in the Appendices of ROSES-2017 and at http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/program-officers-list/. Questions concerning general ROSES-2017 policies and procedures may be directed to Max Bernstein, Lead for Research, Science Mission Directorate, at sara@nasa.gov.
Version: 1

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ROSES 2017: Habitable Worlds

Funding Opportunity ID: 297994
Opportunity Number: NNH17ZDA001N-HW
Opportunity Title: ROSES 2017: Habitable Worlds
Opportunity Category: Discretionary
Opportunity Category Explanation:
Funding Instrument Type: Cooperative Agreement
Grant
Category of Funding Activity: Science and Technology and other Research and Development
Category Explanation:
CFDA Number(s): 43.001
Eligible Applicants: Others (see text field entitled “Additional Information on Eligibility” for clarification)
Additional Information on Eligibility: Proposers must be affiliated with an institution at nspires.nasaprs.com/ and, in general, NASA provides funding only to US institutions. Organizations outside the U.S. that propose on the basis of a policy of no-exchange-of-funds; consult Appendix B Section (l) of the Guidebook for Proposers (http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/procurement/nraguidebook/) for specific details. Some NRAs may be issued jointly with a non-U.S. organization, e.g., those concerning guest observing programs for jointly sponsored space science programs, that will contain additional special guidelines for non-U.S. participants. Also ref. Sections 2.3.10(c)(vii) of the Guidebook for Proposers for special instructions for proposals from non-U.S. organizations that involve U.S. personnel for whom NASA support is requested.
Agency Code: NASA-HQ
Agency Name: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA Headquarters
Posted Date: Oct 16, 2017
Close Date: Nov 16, 2017
Last Updated Date: Oct 16, 2017
Award Ceiling: $0
Award Floor: $0
Estimated Total Program Funding:
Expected Number of Awards:
Description: This ROSES NRA (NNH17ZDA001N) solicits basic and applied research in support of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The NRA covers all aspects of basic and applied supporting research and technology in space and Earth sciences, including, but not limited to: theory, modeling, and analysis of SMD science data; aircraft, scientific balloon, sounding rocket, International Space Station, CubeSat and suborbital reusable launch vehicle investigations; development of experiment techniques suitable for future SMD space missions; development of concepts for future SMD space missions; development of advanced technologies relevant to SMD missions; development of techniques for and the laboratory analysis of both extraterrestrial samples returned by spacecraft, as well as terrestrial samples that support or otherwise help verify observations from SMD Earth system science missions; determination of atomic and composition parameters needed to analyze space data, as well as returned samples from the Earth or space; Earth surface observations and field campaigns that support SMD science missions; development of integrated Earth system models; development of systems for applying Earth science research data to societal needs; and development of applied information systems applicable to SMD objectives and data. Awards range from under $100K per year for focused, limited efforts (e.g., data analysis) to more than $1M per year for extensive activities (e.g., development of science experiment hardware). The funds available for awards in each program element offered in ROSES-2017 range from less than one to several million dollars, which allows for selection from a few to as many as several dozen proposals, depending upon the program objectives and the submission of proposals of merit. Awards will be made as grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and inter- or intraagency transfers, depending on the nature of the proposed work and/or program requirements. The typical period of performance for an award is four years, although a few programs may specify shorter or longer (maximum of five years) periods. Organizations of every type, domestic and foreign, Government and private, for profit and not-for-profit, may submit proposals without restriction on the number or teaming arrangements. Note that it is NASA policy that all investigations involving non-U.S. organizations will be conducted on the basis of no exchange of funds. Electronic submission of proposals is required by the respective due dates for each program element and must be submitted by an authorized official of the proposing organization. Electronic proposals may be submitted via the NASA proposal data system NSPIRES or via Grants.gov. Every organization that intends to submit a proposal in response to ROSES-2017 must be registered with NSPIRES; organizations that intend to submit proposals via Grants.gov must be registered with Grants.gov, in addition to being registered with NSPIRES. Such registration must identify the authorized organizational representative(s) (AOR) who will submit the electronic proposal. All Principal Investigators (PIs) and other participants e.g., Co-Investigators (Co-Is) must be registered in NSPIRES regardless of the submission system. Potential proposers and proposing organizations are urged to access the system(s) well in advance of the proposal due date(s) of interest to familiarize themselves with its structure and to enter the requested information. Details of the solicited programs will be in the Appendices of ROSES-2017. Names, due dates, and links for the individual calls will appear in Tables 2 and 3 of this ROSES-2017 NRA. Interested proposers should monitor http://nspires.nasaprs.com/ or subscribe to the electronic notification system there for additional new programs or amendments to ROSES-2017 through February 2018, at which time release of a subsequent ROSES NRA is planned. A web archive (and RSS feed) for amendments, clarifications, and corrections to ROSES-2017 will be available at: http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/grant-solicitations/roses-2017/ Frequently asked questions about ROSES-2017 will be posted at http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/faqs/. Further information about specific program elements may be obtained, after the release of ROSES-2017, from the individual Program Officers listed in the Summary of Key Information for each program element in the Appendices of ROSES-2017 and at http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/program-officers-list/. Questions concerning general ROSES-2017 policies and procedures may be directed to Max Bernstein, Lead for Research, Science Mission Directorate, at sara@nasa.gov.
Version: 1

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